Photo © Dave Wendelken

Clutch Size & Phenology for Common Species

Estimates are based on The Birds of North America Online and Nests, Eggs, and Nestlings of North American Birds – Second Edition by Paul Baicich and Colin Harrison.

SpeciesAverage Clutch SizeAverage Incubation Period (in days)Average Nestling Period (in days)
Acadian Flycatcher31412
American Crow4-51835
American Goldfinch51314
American Kestrel4-53030
American Robin41315
American Tree Sparrow3-51310
Ash-throated Flycatcher4-51517
Bald Eagle24175
Baltimore Oriole41313
Barn Owl4-63132
Barn Swallow4-51321
Barred Owl2-33132
Bewick’s Wren5-71414
Black Vulture23662
Black-capped Chickadee6-81325
Blue Grosbeak41211
Blue Jay4-51719
Blue-gray Gnatcatcher4-51513
Bobolink5-61212
Boreal Chickadee4-91418
Brown Thrasher4-51311
Canada Goose5-6285
Carolina Chickadee61317
Carolina Wren4-61313
Cedar Waxwing3-51317
Chimney Swift4-51919
Chipping Sparrow41311
Dark-eyed Junco3-51312
Downy Woodpecker4-51221
Eastern Bluebird4-51417
Eastern Phoebe51516
Eastern Screech-owl4-52631
Eastern Towhee3-4139
European Starling5-71421
Field Sparrow3-5118
Gray Catbird41311
Great Blue Heron42777
Great Crested Flycatcher4-51415
Great-horned Owl2-33134
Hairy Woodpecker41329
House Finch4-51315
House Sparrow3-51315
House Wren6-81415
Indigo Bunting3-41311
Killdeer425precocial
Lesser Goldfinch4-51211
Mallard10-1228precocial
Mountain Bluebird5-61420
Mountain Chickadee6-121421
Mourning Dove21514
Northern Cardinal41210
Northern Mockingbird3-51313
Osprey33355
Pileated Woodpecker3-51827
Prothonotary Warbler4-61311
Purple Martin4-51628
Red-eyed Vireo41312
Red-tailed Hawk2-33030
Red-winged Blackbird41111
Rose-breasted Grosbeak41311
Ruby-throated Hummingbird21619
Say’s Phoebe4-51315
Song Sparrow3-51310
Spotted Towhee3-4139
Tree Swallow4-61520
Tufted Titmouse5-61317
Turkey Vulture23977
Violet-green Swallow4-51424
Western Bluebird4-61420
Western Screeh-owl2-42628
Western Scrub Jay2-31618
Wild Turkey8-1228precocial
Wood Duck8-1030precocial
Wood Thrush3-41313