By Eleanor Diamant and Dr. Pamela Yeh, UCLA
Junco Adaptation to Cities in the Digital Age
The Dark-eyed Junco, a small but mighty bird, has been doing well in cities despite all of the disturbances that people (and their cars, buildings, and pets) cause.
Within Southern California, juncos first colonized the city of San Diego in the early 1980s. They have more recently colonized cities up the California coast, landing in Los Angeles in the 2000s, and in Santa Barbara likely within the last 10 years.
In Dr. Pamela Yeh’s lab at UCLA, we have been banding and studying junco populations in Santa Barbara, East Los Angeles, West Los Angeles, and San Diego. We are determining how the junco populations have adapted to life in a city, and whether they have adapted similarly or differently across the different cities. At UCLA, we have been following their lives for the past two and a half years, finding where they nest, and determining the success of each of our uniquely banded (and named!) birds. Using this data, and incorporating citizen-science data from NestWatch, we can determine how different behaviors affect success within the UCLA population as well as the larger breeding population.
Thanks to NestWatch, we have been able to move nest monitoring into the digital age and facilitate nest checks across a large team of undergrads and graduate students. Samuel Bressler, our Junco nest-hunting king and Master’s student, brought NestWatch into the fold in the middle of our first field season in 2018. Through it, we can easily keep up to date, determine who needs checking, and facilitate nest checks when different members of our team are checking or banding chicks. We are also excited at the prospect of adding our data from more than 150 nests to the large pool of data collected by the NestWatch community.
Juncos in the City: Exploring New Heights (and Depths!)
Though classified as “ground-nesters,” 13% of junco nests were found to be above ground level between 1998-2002, including one in a bicycle helmet. Yet at UCLA, the juncos appear to build even more of their nests off the ground. Not only that, but we’ve found our juncos nest in all sorts of weird places throughout campus. One member of the UCLA grounds crew found a junco nest in a construction hat hanging from a wall hook inside a shed in an underground parking lot! We’ve also found junco nests on cardboard boxes in a parking lot, under a strewn cardboard box in a gutter, on an electrical box 3 stories underground, 50 feet up in a palm frond, in window shutters, in pseudo-cavities in trees, on fire alarms, and on windowsills. Without a doubt, juncos’ nesting behavior is breaking new ground as these birds continue to nest in our cities.
Interestingly, a dive into recordings of junco nests have revealed some quirky behaviors. NestWatch has recorded instances of Dark-eyed Juncos nesting in nest boxes. Older literature reveals even more diversity. The UCSD juncos were not the first ones to make their way out of the mountains and into campuses. Dr. John Snyder found two juncos nesting at Stanford University in 1904. These juncos built their nest off the ground in the loose bark of a Eucalyptus tree. Sadly, Dr. Snyder collected that first nest, eggs, and one of the adult juncos in the pair as specimens before the eggs hatched, so we will never know if the pioneering pair would have been successful. Juncos were also noted to nest in old woodpecker holes and tree cavities more than a hundred years ago. They had even been found to nest in tin cans throughout the early to mid 1900s.
Juncos nesting in cities are not only choosing nest sites differently, but they are also timing their breeding season differently. San Diego juncos breed for twice as long as their mountain counterparts, beginning to build nests in early March and breeding until late July/early August. Mountain-dwelling juncos on the other hand, begin nesting in May and end their breeding season in late July. We have noted similar patterns between the UCLA juncos and the UCSD juncos.
As we modify our landscapes in new ways, how is this adaptable bird changing with it? How does first egg date relate to climate and to urbanization? And how much of their behavior in cities differs from their behavior outside of cities?
A Call for Citizen Science—This Year More Than Ever
As we continue to face the crisis of COVID-19, many of us are being restricted to our homes and neighborhoods. Using this time to truly get to know the birds we share our communities with can not only bring some peace to our own lives and teach our children about our ecological community, but also help researchers determine how our environments are affecting bird nesting behavior.
Most members of our junco team have made the difficult decision to remain at home (after graduate students and the lead scientist obtained special permission from UCLA to continue research). Team leader Dr. Pamela Yeh will continue working alone in the field. Knowing that one person cannot substitute for two Ph.D. students, three Master’s students, and a dozen undergraduates, we would like to use NestWatch to coordinate remotely between researchers and shift how we do research and what data we gather. Thanks to NestWatch and the citizen-scientist community, we are hoping that together we can bolster our data on junco nesting–and other birds’ nesting behavior–across their ranges.
Specifically, we’re asking NestWatchers who live within the breeding range of any Dark-eyed Junco subspecies for help collecting data on junco first egg dates, nest height above ground, and nest success, including in urban and suburban areas. As human disturbance dramatically declines in many urban areas, we have an opportunity to learn how our landscapes are affecting bird nesting behavior and their success within the urban environment. Although we can’t visit our normal study sites, the UCLA team will also be searching for nests at our homes, as local ordinances allow—and we invite you to join in, if you can.
Please note that we urge you to put your own safety first and to comply with any local or state orders regarding outdoor activity.
“Specifically, we’re asking NestWatchers who live within the breeding range of any Dark-eyed Junco subspecies for help collecting data on junco first egg dates, nest height above ground, and nest success, including in urban and suburban areas.”
If you’re a NestWatcher with access to outdoor space, you can look for junco nests around your home in grasses and ivy on the ground, but also in places like flower pots, hanging baskets, under a tarp, on a forgotten door wreath, and in low rock crevices. Look for behaviors like picking up grasses and food items and follow the adults from a distance to their nest site. From all of us on the junco team at UCLA, we appreciate any nesting data you can submit during this difficult time.
Note: This post has been edited to provide more detail about the adjustments that UCLA researchers and students have made to their fieldwork schedules in response to COVID-19 shelter-in-place guidelines.
I would love to help out with this because we have tons of Juncos at our feeder and in our yard. Are you interested in data/information from Oakville, Ontario, Canada?
Hi Mary, Yes! NestWatch takes nesting data on any species, anywhere in the world. LEt us know if you have questions at firstname.lastname@example.org.
I live in Olympia, WA and have many Juncos. Been wanting to build some nest boxes for chickadees and such. Can I make some kind of a nest box to put out in brush piles around my home? Plans for nest box for them????
Hi Larry, Dark-eyed Juncos have only been documented using nest boxes a handful of times- they are not cavity-nesters. However, you can view all nest box plans we have for cavity-nesting species on our Right Bird, Right House tool, including chickadees. Click on the species pages to view a construction plan as well as placement tips and species preferences.
Would you like data from the interior of British Columbia Canada? We have had Juncos nesting in the hanging basket I get for mothers’ day for a number of years. Needless to say, we always let the flowers die for lack of water and enjoy the Juncos raising their broods.
Hi Kim, Yes! NestWatch takes nesting data on any species, anywhere in the world. Let us know if you have questions at email@example.com.
Have both Dark Eyed and Slate colored here in the Adirondacks. Numbers are increasing here. Will start looking for nesting sites.
I will say in response to your Junco posting…I live in Clarksville, TN, and because of the warm winter here I noticed I never had the population of Juncos. There were 1 or 2…but never like we have had before!
Hello! I live in Beaverton, Oregon (suburb of Portland) and have many Dark-eyed Juncos all year round. They are busy little birds and I observe them daily at my feeders and feeding on the ground. Last year, a Junco built a cup nest approximately 5 feet above ground inside a bush by my living room window. I will look for nests.
We didn’t have any juncos this winter. Sometimes there are hundreds of them. Old timers call them snow birds because they show up at that time of year. We didn’t see them.
A pair of Oregon juncos first stayed in our yard year-round in 2018 and have been nesting here in Woodland Hills CA ever since. (Just over the hill from UCLA). Prior to 2018 they were only winter visitors. I thought it was odd when they stayed and didn’t realize it was being studied until the article in Living Bird magazine. Spotting their nests has been tricky. Your article helped me know what to look for. Chicks fledged yesterday, but I didn’t know there was an active nest. I was able to find the used nest today and will entire in Nest Watch. The pair that stays year-round are bolder, more out-going than the migrants. They get up on the seed feeder and are aggressive at the suet feeder.
I don’t know if this helps or not. My husband and I went to the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society’s Annual Flower Show in March. In one of the exhibits there was a dark-eyed junco hopping around eating seeds, etc. Looked happy as a lark (to make a pun). I hope he somehow survived & got back outside when the show closed.
We have a pair of Juncos nesting in an old bird house (rectangle with hole entry). We live on the 3rd floor in the Admiral Junction neighborhood of West Seattle. I’m happy to share info, photos, video. I’d say they’re on their 3rd or 4th day of hauling nesting materials. We’ve seen them bring grass/needles, long leaves, moss, dried leaves, and some cotton string. Let us know how we can help!
Hi Carolyn, Thanks for commenting – the best way to help is to report your nest to NestWatch, and monitor it throughout the nesting cycle. Get started by clicking on the Your Data tab, sign in (or create a free account if you do not already have one with the Cornell Lab), and you’ll have access to the data entry portal. Click “Add New Nest Site” to report where you found the nest, and then Start a New Nesting Attempt to report on this clutch. Visit the nest every 3-4 days to report how many eggs or young there are, and other information. Fill out the data online as much as you can for each nest visit, and when you’re done, summarize the nesting attempt to report the nest fate. Learn about how to reduce disturbance when monitoring nests here, and please email us with any further questions at firstname.lastname@example.org – these comment sections are not regularly monitored.
I’m in Damascus, Oregon. I found a Junco (I think Oregon Junco) nest in a hanging pot of impatiens. All of my hanging pots have drip irrigation and when i spotted the nest I tried to move the drip tube, but it appears the nest was built around it. I hope the emitter is under the nest and won’t cause problems. I’ve decided to leave the water on so the plants won’t die out and expose the nest.The nest with two eggs was first spotted on May 28 and I was finally able to get another look today, June 5 and there are three eggs. Was the third egg laid close to the time of the first two? I’m anticipating hatching around the 8th or 9th.
Hi Patty, Birds typically lay one egg per day, it’s most likely that the third egg was laid the day after you spotted two eggs in the nest. Dark-eyed Juncos need around 12-13 days for incubation, and incubation usually starts on the day the last egg was laid, so this puts the hatching day around June 9th, yes.
we have A LOT of juncos during winter at my feeders.
i have never seen them during summer before, probably because they have other food sources? I have never found a nest before though.
Since mid May, a male darkeye Junco has come to my window and seen himself in the reflection of its 19th Century glass, often w nesting material or food in his beak. He then attacks pecking repetitively at each of the 9 panes across. I am trying to find the nest but
so far have not and don’t want to get him even more riled up. He starts at pre-dawn (when I believe he should be chorusing) and comes back through out the day. Will he injure himself, with this reckless and obsessive defense against his own reflection?
2100 ft altitude: Catskill Mountains near Hudson River (NY)
Hi Christine, This junco is likely building a nest elsewhere, and taking his reflection in the glass pane as another male on his “territory”. The best wa to help prevent this is to break the relection in the glass – you can get tips on how to do so here, such as rubbing soap on the glass, or placing fabric over top.
We are in Walton, NY, in the Southern Tier of the Catskills, with many Juncos. Currently we have a Junco nest on the ground, protected slightly by tall grass, about 3 feet from our cabin. The mother has been sitting in her eggs but today, possibly day 10, she is not sitting on one egg that she seems to have moved away from her.
How should we provide you this information? Juncos have been building a nest IN my mailbox for the past 4 days. It will be hard not to look in the nest but my doorbell camera can provide info on their activity to a limited degree. Please let me know!
Hi Barbara, You can report data by participating in NestWatch. If you haven’t already, create an account on our website and sign in to Your Data homepage. Please review the Code of Conduct before you start monitoring, then simply visit the nest on a regular basis (one or twice a week at most) and report what you see to our website. You can find a data sheet here to help record data (then transfer it online later), and this graphic here may help you better understand how data are structured. For example, you must create a nest site to tell us where the nest is – the mailbox – and then start a nesting attempt to tell us about this junco nest. If any other bird nests in the mailbox in the future, simply start a new attempt to report on it. Let us know if you have any questions at email@example.com
I found a nest in my deck flower box last weekend. 4 little eggs. Mama bird had interesting behavior. She flew off the nest when I came out to water my deck plants – that is how I found the nest. I did my watering, then went inside and sat down to watch TV. After a few minutes she came back and hopped onto a bush within my range of vision, and jumped around and bobbed her head for all the world as if she was trying to get my attention. After a few minutes of this, she went to her nest and quietly slipped back onto it. It reminded me that several weeks ago I had seen a junco on my deck, exploring it and tapping gently on the glass door. I had wondered what it was all about at the time. Now I’m wondering if the birds are trying to get attention to test out whether I have pets or will try to chase them. It sure looks that way. Then, when I don’t bother them, they figure it’s safe to build here. Am I anthropomorphizing too much?
Today we have discovered a dark eyes junco nest in an old planter hanging on above our balcony, would you like to know more information about this nest? We are on Vancouver Island in British Columbia, Canada .
Hi Tessa, To report on a nest, we encourage you enter your data on NestWatch.org – this way it can be added to our database. NestWatch is free and it’s easy to participate. Participants monitor bird nests and report the data to NestWatch.org. To get started, create an account here (or sign in with your Cornell Lab username and password if you already have one), review our Code of Conduct, and take the short, easy quiz to become a certified nest monitor. Then, go to the Your Data homepage, Add a New Nest Site to report the exact location of your nest, and Start a New Nesting Attempt to begin entering data for this clutch. Please send any further questions to us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
I uncovered a tiny nest while mowing yesterday; I don’t think I damaged it. It was tucked the bottom of a wooden fence in my yard. It had one egg in it and I noticed a little Junco yelling at me as I was examining the nest. I backed off and left it alone. I noticed the little Junco hopping along the top of the fence and eating something. That was yesterday.
This morning my wife noticed the Junco sitting on the nest, and when it left there was another egg in there!
If you’re interested I can keep updating here or via email if you like.
I also have a question about the uncovered nest. The area around the nest was overgrown and I’ve exposed the nest with my yard-work. Should I try and “conceal” it again with little branches or something. I don’t want to do any harm.
Hi Galen, It’s best to try to give the nest plenty of space, but if you can safely (and quickly) place some cover near it, that should be sufficient – don’t cover it completely, but you can add a small pile of branches or leaves nearby – something to help it escape the notice of predators.
To report on a nest, we encourage you enter your data on NestWatch.org – this way it can be added to our database. NestWatch is free and it’s easy to participate. Participants monitor bird nests and report the data to NestWatch.org. To get started, create an account here (or sign in with your Cornell Lab username and password if you already have one), review our Code of Conduct, and take the short, easy quiz to become a certified nest monitor. Then, go to the Your Data homepage, Add a New Nest Site to report the exact location of your nest, and Start a New Nesting Attempt to begin entering data for this clutch. Please send any further questions to us at email@example.com.
Thank you, Holly. I quickly put some branches and leaves next to the nest while birds were away. I also started entering data on the nest at NestWatch. Three eggs in the nest now. I hope they stay safe.
Thank you for your help.
Help please!! I have an abandon Dark-eyed Junco nest with 4 little eggs. Unfortunately they had put the nest in a high traffic area with my puppy and people. The eggs have been abandoned now for about 8 days. Can you help save them?
Hi Rockie, whenever you think you have an abandoned nest, we recommend waiting about 4 weeks to be sure, which accounts for the fully incubation period plus time to account for any delay in incubation. Birds can be sneaky and we have several reports from folks who thought a nest was abandoned but the eggs then hatched, meaning that the adult was visiting the nest all the while. If after the four weeks there is no change, then the nest is indeed abandoned and you can dispose of the contents where they will not attract predators. Note that once a nest is abandoned, there is very little, if any chance of the young surviving. Eggs need to be incubated nearly constantly, and so once the adult is gone more than a few hours, it’s usually too late by then. Also, it is against federal law to possess wild birds without a special permit – even so, raising birds almost always ends in failure. Not only do they need round-the-clock feeding, certain nutrients/foods, temperatures, and more, but they also need their parents to teach them how to fly, and fend for themselves in the wild if they are to be released. If this nest is indeed abandoned, the adults in this situation have likely already started rebuilding a nest somewhere nearby. If you have more questions, please email us at firstname.lastname@example.org – these comment sections are not regularly monitored.
Thank you so much Holly for getting back to me. I just really don’t want to see them die.
Thank you for all you do.
I live in Shoreline, Washington (just north of Seattle). This spring for the first time since the 15 years we’ve lived here, 2 juncos attempted to make a nest below a second floor deck. The deck is about 8’ off the ground and they chose a very sheltered corner, well hidden and against the house wall so probably fairly warm. Every time they built the nest, sparrows would come and destroy it. (Why???) Eventually the sparrows gave up and the nest was complete. Because of the location, It have never been able to see inside the nest. Over a few weeks, both Mom and Dad tended to the nest. The last several days sparrows have been congregating near this nest. I have tried to shop them off with well placed flying rocks. But yesterday there was quite a ruckus and now the nest is on the ground, empty. And the Junco parents are nowhere to be found. 😢 What can I do differently to help protect them “next time”? Note there are other potential predators in our area; namely crows. Help!!
Hi BJ, We have a helpful section of our website all about managing invasive species here. Please send any further questions to email@example.com – these comment sections are not regularly monitored.
On June 6, 2021 a Junco built a nest in a hanging planter on our front porch. Its been 3 days and there’s no sign of any activity with the nest – no parents, no eggs. Has this next been abandoned? Its in an area frequented by humans and hummingbirds (feeder right next to nest). Should I remove the nest or wait a bit longer?
Hi Cynthia, you do not need to take any action on this nest. Many birds have a small delay between when they finish their nest and when they start laying eggs. If the nest is in a less-than-ideal spot, then you can legally remove nesting materials. Once eggs are laid, however, the nest becomes protected by federal law. If you’d like to encourage the nest, be sure to give it plenty of space and wait a few weeks.
Do Junco’s use nests immediately after building them or is there a delay when they’ll lay their eggs. A Junco built a nest in a planter, days ago, but there’s been no activity or parent sighting for a few days. If the nest isn’t going to be used, is it ok to remove it?
Hi Cas, Many birds have a small delay between when they finish their nest and when they start laying eggs. If the nest is in a less-than-ideal spot, then you can legally remove nesting materials. Once eggs are laid, however, the nest becomes protected by federal law. If you’d like to encourage the nest, be sure to give it plenty of space and wait another week or two.
We had a junco that built a lavish nest on a horizontal drainpipe about 10 feet above the ground. The nest grew like a giant beard until it broke off!
Now my dog found a junco nest hidden amongst tufts of mondo grass on the ground. Mama had been fluttering around the adjacent trees for a while, chirping at us, and now I realize that she was being protective, not sociable. There are three newborn chicks, and they seem to be thriving.
We’re in Northern California in the Bay Area. Although we are residential, we have many live oaks that attract a plethora of wildlife. We have a pair of juncos that have taken up residence in a potted plant right next to our French doors on the back deck, a fairly high traffic area. They don’t seem to mind us or the dogs. The spot is sheltered and about 3-1/2 feet off the ground. Two eggs are in the nest, the first was laid on 6/14, the second on 6/15. We’ll be traveling when the eggs hatch, but home in time to see them grow into fledglings and note when they take flight.
Hi Dawn, these are great observations to add to NestWatch! For information on how to report to us, please review this FAQ.
Hello! Are you still interested in Junco nest info? We have an active nest in Portland OR about four feet off the ground. It snowed yesterday (first time in April in decades),so I’m worried about the eggs. Haven’t seen the parents all day. They were laid on 4/4-6. Today’s the 12th.
Hi Pati, Thanks for asking! NestWatch is always looking for nesting data – we encourage anyone who is monitoring a nest to report data to our website or mobile app! We can accept nests from any bird species anywhere in the world. Learn how to enter nest data here. As for your nest, I wouldn’t worry yet. Eggs are laid once per day, and parents don’t spend much time at the nest until the entire clutch is laid. Then, they start incubating. If you have more questions about your nest, please feel free to email us at NestWatch@cornell.edu.
Hi I have a nest with 2 eggs that seems abandoned. I used a bird app to ID them so I’m not entirely sure they’re juncos or not but would love to know. Nest is about 4’ off ground in a shade cloth hanging from a canopy. We are in the Arizona mountains. Both parents spent so much time building it but haven’t seen them since.
Hi Kim, Please feel free to email us with a photo if you like (firstname.lastname@example.org). We recommend waiting at least four weeks from the last time you saw an adult at the nest before assuming a nest is abandoned – sometimes birds delay incubation. Once the four weeks are up, and if there is no change to the nest or its contents, it’s probably safe to assume it is abandoned. Read more here.
Sadly the winds here have destroyed the nest and the eggs fell to the ground despite me trying to secure it. She did end up laying 4 eggs but I never saw her sitting on them in these horrible conditions. I’ll still email photos just to be sure it’s a junco. Thanks so much.
I live in Lakewood, Washington and just discovered a dark eyed junco nest on the ground just below my bedroom window while I was weeding. The mother flew off the nest right when I bent over it. There are 5 eggs, all look good. I snapped a photo and left the area alone. I did observe one of the parents return to the nest a short while after so I think they are alright. Have no idea when the eggs were laid but if I hear babies peeping I’ll give an update.
Hi Stephanie, Great observations! If you’d like to contribute to NestWatch, please review our overview page and check out this FAQ which instructs how to enter data on our website or mobile app. Thanks for your interest!
We have a nest on our hanging planter at the balcony, we put a ring camera there.
Has 2 eggs, and the mom was incubating them until yesterday a crow came and I think she’s scared to return (we don’t see at the camera that the crow catches the mom)
But the eggs are there, could we help those eggs or do something?
We are at Oak Park, Ventura
Hi Carolina, After a predator attack as you witnessed, there’s not much that can be done eggs are likely non-viable now. Also, only those with special permits can legally raise wild birds, so it’s best not to interfere. If the parents still don’t return for a few weeks, then you can dispose of the nest and its contents. Read this FAQ for more information.
Juncos have taken residence in a secured side yard of our house for the last two years at least. I didn’t realize that they nested on the ground until this year as last year they built a nest in a planter hanging 5′ above the ground. The nest last year had 4 fledglings but then the second time they laid eggs in it at least 1 baby fell to the ground. It was still breathing so I put I back in the nest. Sadly I found it back on the ground again so it didn’t make it. This year I noticed two nests hidden on the ground. The 4 eggs in the one nest hatched and the babies fledged but the 2 eggs in the other nest never did. Those nests have not been used again. A month ago I hung a bird feeder as well as a bird bath in the side yard. I have witnessed a junco hanging on it eating and others foraging on the ground. When I check the water in the bird bath there’s lots of clicking which I’ve assumed from their behavior last year was a warning to stay away from a nest that I haven’t seen which if it exists would have to be about 8′ down on the ground from the original ones. Yesterday when I added water to the bird bath I was literally attacked by the female who then with wings spread was hopping on the ground leading me away as the male was clicking overhead. Is this a behavior they exhibit when protecting their nest or is it also a behavior when they have a food source that they’re protecting? I know hummingbirds are bullies when it comes to their feeder but I couldn’t find any info on Juncos. Thanks so much!
Hello! I currently have a dark-eye Junco nest in my yard in Portland, Oregon. They built the nest in a flower pot containing strawberry plants, which is sitting on a bench about 3 feet off of the ground. There are at least 3 eggs in the nest, with the first one laid on July 13, 2022. I have photos if you would like them.